• Engine top-end problems usually affect engine performance. These problem con be diagnosed by a compression test or by tracing engine noises to the top-end with a sounding rod or stethoscope.

• If the performance is poor at low speeds, check for while smoke in the crankcase breather hose. If the hose is smoky, check for a seized piston ring (Section 12).

Compression too low, hard starting or poor performance at low speed

- Incorrect valve adjustment

- Burned or bent valve

- Incorrect valve liming

- Broken valve spring

- Uneven valve seating

- Leaking or damaged head gasket

- Warped or cracked cylinder head

• Worn cylinder, piston or piston rings (section 12)

Compression too high, overheating or knocking

• Excessive carbon build-up on piston crown or on combustion chamber

Excessive noise

Incorrect valve adjustment

- Sticking valve or broken valve spring

- Damaged or worn camshaft

- Loose or worn cam chain

- Worn or damaged earn chain

- Worn or damaged cam chain tensioner

- Worn cam sprocket teeth

• Worn cylinder, piston or piston rings (section 12)

Rough idle

• Low cylinder compression

Excessive smoke

- Worn valve stem or valve guide

- Damaged stem seal

• Worn cylinder, piston or piston rings (section 12)

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